Friday, June 25, 2010

Boot sequence of PC (Personal Computer)

The system BIOS is what starts the computer running when you turn it on. The
following are the steps that a typical boot sequence involves. Of course this will
vary by the manufacturer of your hardware, BIOS, etc., and especially by what
peripherals you have in the PC. Here is what generally happens when you turn on
your system power:

1. The internal power supply turns on and initializes. The power supply takes
some time until it can generate reliable power for the rest of the computer,
and having it turn on prematurely could potentially lead to damage.
Therefore, the chipset will generate a reset signal to the processor (the same
as if you held the reset button down for a while on your case) until it receives
the Power Good signal from the power supply.

2. When the reset button is released, the processor will be ready to start
executing. When the processor first starts up, it is suffering from amnesia;
there is nothing at all in the memory to execute. Of course processor makers
know this will happen, so they pre-program the processor to always look at
the same place in the system BIOS ROM for the start of the BIOS boot
program. This is normally location FFFF0h, right at the end of the system
memory. They put it there so that the size of the ROM can be changed
without creating compatibility problems. Since there are only 16 bytes left
from there to the end of conventional memory, this location just contains
a "jump" instruction telling the processor where to go to find the real BIOS
startup program.

3. The BIOS performs the power-on self test (POST). If there are any fatal
errors, the boot process stops. POST beep codes can be found in this area of
the Troubleshooting Expert.

4. The BIOS looks for the video card. In particular, it looks for the video card's
built in BIOS program and runs it. This BIOS is normally found at location
C000h in memory. The system BIOS executes the video card BIOS, which
initializes the video card. Most modern cards will display information on the
screen about the video card. (This is why on a modern PC you usually see
something on the screen about the video card before you see the messages
from the system BIOS itself).

5. The BIOS then looks for other devices' ROMs to see if any of them have
BIOSes. Normally, the IDE/ATA hard disk BIOS will be found at C8000h
and executed. If any other devices BIOSes are found, they are executed as

6. The BIOS displays its startup screen.

7. The BIOS does more tests on the system, including the memory count-up test
which you see on the screen. The BIOS will generally display a text error
message on the screen if it encounters an error at this point; these error
messages and their explanations can be found in this part of the
Troubleshooting Expert.

8. The BIOS performs a "system inventory" of sorts, doing more tests to
determine what sort of hardware is in the system. Modern BIOSes have
many automatic settings and will determine memory timing (for example)
based on what kind of memory it finds. Many BIOSes can also dynamically
set hard drive parameters and access modes, and will determine these at
roughly this time. Some will display a message on the screen for each drive
they detect and configure this way. The BIOS will also now search for and
label logical devices (COM and LPT ports).

9. If the BIOS support the Plug and Play standard, it will detect and configure
Plug and Play devices at this time and display a message on the screen for
each one it finds. See here for more details on how PnP detects devices and
assigns resources.

10. The BIOS will display a summary screen about your system's configuration.
Checking this page of data can be helpful in diagnosing setup problems,
although it can be hard to see because sometimes it flashes on the screen very
quickly before scrolling off the top.

11. The BIOS begins the search for a drive to boot from. Most modern BIOSes
contain a setting that controls if the system should first try to boot from the
floppy disk (A:) or first try the hard disk (C:). Some BIOSes will even let you
boot from your CD-ROM drive or other devices, depending on the boot
sequence BIOS setting.

12. Having identified its target boot drive, the BIOS looks for boot information
to start the operating system boot process. If it is searching a hard disk, it
looks for a master boot record at cylinder 0, head 0, sector 1 (the first sector
on the disk); if it is searching a floppy disk, it looks at the same address on
the floppy disk for a volume boot sector.

13. If it finds what it is looking for, the BIOS starts the process of booting the
operating system, using the information in the boot sector. At this point, the
code in the boot sector takes over from the BIOS. The DOS boot process is
described in detail here. If the first device that the system tries (floppy, hard
disk, etc.) is not found, the BIOS will then try the next device in the boot
sequence, and continue until it finds a bootable device.

14. If no boot device at all can be found, the system will normally display an
error message and then freeze up the system. What the error message is
depends entirely on the BIOS, and can be anything from the rather clear "No
boot device available" to the very cryptic "NO ROM BASIC - SYSTEM
HALTED". This will also happen if you have a bootable hard disk partition
but forget to set it active.

This process is called a "cold boot" (since the machine was off, or cold, when it
started). A "warm boot" is the same thing except it occurs when the machine is
rebooted using {Ctrl}+{Alt}+{Delete} or similar. In this case the POST is skipped
and the boot process continues roughly at step 8 above.

OSI (Open System InTerconnect) Concepts ..

The standard model for networking protocols and distributed applications is the International Standard Organization's Open System Interconnect (ISO/OSI) model. It defines seven network layers.

For more brief explanation ........

Please check out the link given below it will also help you to distinguish the different types of network component comes under which layer ..

Friday, June 11, 2010

All Security Updates issue .......

For all update issue can write to Microsoft

Outlook Junk Emails Filters .........

Please follow the link for Outlook Junk Emails Filters, how they are set and how they work ..........

How do I stop *wanted* email from going to my Junk folder

There are two important steps you should take:


When you find email
in your junk mail that is not junk, right click on it's line in the list, select Junk E-mail, and Mark as Not Junk. You'll then have the opportunity to add the sender or the address they sent to to a "safe" list so that they'll not be marked as junk in the future.

Visit Office Update regularly. One of the things they update is the junk mail filter, and I've seen it improve in accuracy over time.

For all Rules & Alerts for Outlook

Please follow the link given below to set all sort of rules in Outlook 2003,2007. However in Outlook 2010 Make sure Rules & Alerts are in Home Tab Rules & Alerts.

In Microsoft Outlook 2010, 2007 and 2003, how do I set up rules to handle incoming mail

You can use Outlook Inbox rules to forward, filter, or move incoming mail. To set up a rule in Outlook 2010, 2007 and 2003 to automate the handling of mail:

1. Log into Outlook.

2. To access Rules:

* In Outlook 2010: From the Home tab, select Rules, then Manage Rules & Alerts... .

* In Outlook 2003 & 2007: From the Tools menu, select Rules and Alerts... .

3. If you have more than one email account, in the "Apply changes to this folder" drop-down menu, click the Inbox you want.

4. Click New Rule.

5. To use a template with pre-specified actions and conditions, select the template you want.

To create the rule by specifying your own conditions, actions, and exceptions:
* In Outlook 2010, under "Start from a blank rule", select Apply rule on messages I receive or Apply rule on messages I send. Click Next.

* In Outlook 2007, under "Start from a blank rule", select Check messages when they arrive or Check messages after sending. Click Next.

* In Outlook 2003:

1. From a blank rule, click Start, and then click Next.
2. Under "Select when messages should be checked", select Check messages when they arrive or Check messages after sending. Click Next.

Note: This option is not available when you create a rule for a public folder.
6. Follow the rest of the instructions in the Rules Wizard.

7. If you want to run this rule on messages already in one of your folders, check Run this rule now on messages already in folder on the last page of the Rules Wizard, where folder is the name of the target folder.

To have this rule apply to all your email accounts and inboxes, check Create this rule on all accounts on the last page of the Rules Wizard.